Dengue is an acute viral illness caused by virus and spread by mosquitoes (Aedes). Dengue is a major global public health challenge in India and other tropic & subtropics countries.
Cases of Dengue fever has increased over 20 fold in India in the last 10 Years due to increased population growth rate, unplanned urbanization, global warming, inefficient mosquito control & lack of health care facilities.
Symptoms usually begin 4 to 7days after the mosquito bite & typically last 3-10 days. Presenting features may range from asymptomatic fever to dreaded complications such as hemorrhagic fever & shock. Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)
Common symptoms of dengue include high grade fever, muscle & joints pains, headache, nausea, vomiting, skin rash (that can disappear & then reappear).
A person with dengue hemorrhagic fever may experience bleeding from mouth/nose/gums, internal bleeding which leads to black vomit /stool small blood spots under the skin. Without immediate treatment at best hospital for Viral Fever, DHF can be fatal.
Dengue shock syndrome is severe form of dengue. It can be fatal. Along with symptoms of DF & DHF the patient may experience severe abdominal pain, disorientation, sudden hypotension, heavy bleeding.
Effective treatment at best fever hospital is possible if a clinical diagnosis is made early Lab testing confirms the diagnosis. Haemogram may reveal drop in platelet count. In some cases, platelet count may be normal initially but may drop in due course. So monitoring of platelet count is vital to avoid bleeding manifestations.
There is no specific treatment (or) cure, Treatment is supportive. As in case of any fever, hydration is of prime importance which is neglected by many patients. Supportive care with analgesics hydration with oral fluids/iv fluid and sufficient bed rest forms the management strategy.
Hospitalization allows patient to be monitored carefully. Hospitalization also allows regular monitoring of platelet count and transfusion of platelets if need arises (Platelet count less than 10,000/ mm3) or bleeding manifestations develops. Sometimes even though platelet count may be normal patient develops bleeding manifestations. This can be due to defect in platelet function and such cases also transfusion of platelets is necessary.
Prevention: Till now no effective vaccine is available. Only avoiding mosquitoes bites can prevent it says best pulmonologist. Steps should be taken at community and personal level to prevent breeding of mosquitos and mosquito bites.
Avoid stagnant water in and around the house.
Ensure surroundings are clean.
Remove water from coolers and other small containers at least once a week.
Ensure fogging / Spraying being done at least every fortnight.
Use mosquitoes trap nets and mosquitoes repellents.
Ensure full clothing in children while sleeping.
Install screens on windows and doors.